Clean Water Act (CWA)


Section 401 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) bars FERC from issuing a license for a hydropower project until the state or states where the project is located certify that the project will comply with applicable state water quality standards. These water quality certifications often contain conditions as a condition of certification, which FERC must include as license conditions.

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Hydropower Reform Coalition

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Federal Power Act (FPA)

The Federal Power Act, enacted by Congress in 1935, was the result of a long debate over whether the Federal Government should permit private interests to develop the hydroelectric potential of the waters of the United States, or whether it should reserve such development for itself for the public benefit.

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